Established in 681 by Asparuch (q.v.), Bulgaria became the first independent state on Byzantine soil to be recognized by Byzantium (q.v.). The Bulgars, with their capital at Pliska (qq.v.), ruled over a large indigenous population of Slavs (q.v.) and Greeks. By the 10th century Bulgars and Slavs had intermixed into a single people, referred to as Bulgarians. Bulgaria always remained a kind of third-world country on Byzantium's northern border, one that was dependent on the Byzantine economy, one subject to Byzantine cultural influences. It was also an intermittent military threat, especially under khan Krum (qq.v.), and tsars Symeon and Samuel (qq.v.). Byzantine cultural influence seemed to make headway when, in 864, khan Boris I (qq.v.) received baptism from Byzantium. This provoked a revolt of the Bulgar nobility, which defended Bulgar paganism against Byzantine encroachment. Boris suppressed the revolt, but it made him hesitant to place the Bulgarian church under Byzantine ecclesiastical administration. However, in 870 he did just that, after negotiations with Pope Nicholas I (qq.v.) broke down. In 885 Boris accepted four pupils of the brothers Cyril and Methodios (qq.v.) who provided him with a Slavonic-speaking clergy and with necessary liturgical texts. Boris struggled to preserve Church Slavonic (q.v.) as the language of the Bulgarian church in the face of Byzantine insistence on Greek. Nevertheless, resistance to Byzantine cultural and ecclesiastical hegemony remained strong in Bulgaria, as Bogomilism (q.v.) demonstrated. To some extent these contradictory forces were never resolved. "Peace" meant Byzantine occupation of the country from 1018-1185, after Basil II (q.v.) ended a series of campaigns in 1014 with a decisive victory over the forces of Samuel of Bulgaria (q.v.). Subsequently a revolt occurred in 1185, which by 1186 resulted in a new state referred to as the Second Bulgarian Empire. Its capital was at Turnovo (q.v.) and its early rulers were energetic men like Kalojan and John Asen II (qq.v.). The new state expanded into Thrace (q.v.), and, after the battle ofKlokotnitsa (q.v.) in 1230, into western Macedonia (q.v.) as well. However, the growing power of Serbia (q.v.) threatened Bulgaria, and at Velbuzd (q.v.) in 1330 the Serbs destroyed a Bulgarian army. Within several decades after Velbuzd, Bulgaria's decline was made even more apparent by the Ottoman expansion into the Balkans. In 1373 Bulgaria became a vassal to the Ottomans (q.v.), and in 1393 Murad I (q.v.) conquered Bulgaria outright, burning Turnovo.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BULGARIA — BULGARIA, East Balkan republic located along the Black Sea. Ancient Period A Jewish settlement is known to have existed in Macedonia in the time of Caligula (37–41 C.E.; Philo, Embassy to Gaius, par. 281). A late second century Latin inscription… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bulgaria — • A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Bulgaria     Bulgaria     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Bulgaria —    Bulgaria is relatively close to the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople (Istanbul), and the Orthodox Church came to dominate its Christian community. Its position was shaken during four centuries of ottoman Turkish rule,… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Bulgarĭa — (B. Fr.), Morchelpilzgattung, aus der Familie der Hymenomycetes Helvellacei Cupulati …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bulgaria — M.L., from Bulgari Bulgarians, perhaps lit. the men from the Bolg, the River Volga, upon whose banks they lived until 6c. But the people s name for themselves in O.Bulg. was Blugarinu, according to OED, which suggests a different origin. In other …   Etymology dictionary

  • Bulgaria — [bəl ger′ē ə, boolger′ē ə] country in SE Europe, on the Black Sea: founded in the 7th cent. & under Turkish rule from the late 14th cent. until 1878; gained full independence in 1908: 42,855 sq mi (110,994 sq km); pop. 8,473,000; cap. Sofia …   English World dictionary

  • Bulgaria — Infobox Country native name = bg. Република България bg. Republika Balgaria This article uses the official Bulgarian transliteration system when romanizing Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.] local name = bg. Balgaria …   Wikipedia

  • Bulgaria — Република България Republika Bǎlgariya República de Bulgaria …   Wikipedia Español

  • Bulgaria — /bul gair ee euh, bool /, n. a republic in SE Europe. 8,652,745; 42,800 sq. mi. (110,850 sq. km). Cap.: Sofia. * * * Bulgaria Introduction Bulgaria Background: The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in …   Universalium

  • Bulgaria — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Bulgaria <p></p> Background: <p></p> The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first… …   The World Factbook

  • Bulgaria — La República de Bulgaria es un país europeo ubicado en el sudeste del continente. Colinda al norte con Rumania, al sur con Grecia y Turquía y al oeste con Serbia y Montenegro y con la A.R.Y. de Macedonia. Su capital es Sofía. * * * (República… …   Enciclopedia Universal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”